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Title: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome in Children
Authors: Oviawe, O.
Osarogiagbon, O.W
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research
Series/Report no.: 8;2
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is characterised by partial airway obstruction with superimposed intermittent complete obstruction during sleep. This leads to a disruption of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence. Undetected and untreated OSAS may lead to poor school performance, growth failure and death. While OSAS is reported in about 2% of children in developed countries, its prevalence in Nigeria is unknown. Hence this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and patterns of OSAS in children in Benin City, Nigeria. Questionnaire for clinical diagnosis of OSAS was designed and administered to children seen in the respiratory unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, between September 1988 and August 2003. Those that satisfied the criteria for the diagnosis of OSAS were selected and analyzed. 22 patients had clinical OSAS, of which 19 were males and 3 females, giving M:F ratio of 6:1 while the age (mean ± SD) was 2.6 ± 3.3 years; Range, 1.5 months - 11 years. The duration (mean ± SD) was 10.5 ± 2.2 months. Common associated diagnosis included adenotonsilar hypertrophy 14 (63.6%), laryngomalacia 2 (9.1%), epiglotic cyst 1 (4.6%), Choanal stenosis 1 (4.6%), Treacher-Collins syndrome 1 (4.6%) and Down's syndrome 1 (4.6%). Complications were seen in 9 (41%) cases and included growth failure, congestive heart failure, and poor school performance. Three cases had multiple complications. No death was seen as a complication of OSAS in this study. Early presentation of OSAS and prompt treatment are envisaged to reduce complications.
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